Country Profile of Mauritius

Country Profile of Mauritius 

History: The Republic of Mauritius is composed of a group of Islands, situated in the south-western part of the Indian Ocean. The Portuguese were the first Europeans to discover the island. The Dutch were accidentally driven to its shore in 1598 and decided to colonize the island in 1638. They resentfully abandoned it in 1710 after two unsuccessful attempts to make the colony a prosperous one. The departure of the Hollanders opened the way for the arrival of French settlers who renamed the island Île de France (literally: Isle of France). Later the British engaged themselves in a battle with the French colonists to take possession of the island. The island was renamed to its former Dutch name and remained a colony of the British Empire till its independence on 12 March 1968.

Geography: It is 65 km (40 mi) long and 45 km (30 mi) wide. The area of the country is 2,040 square kilometres (790 sq mi). The island is surrounded by more than 150 km (100 mi) of white sandy beaches, and the lagoons are protected from the open sea by the world's third-largest coral reef, which surrounds the island.

Population: 1,233,000 (2011 census). Population growth (annual %) was reported at 0.06872 % in 2016.

Government and Politics: The Republic of Mauritius is a parliamentary Republic. The Prime Minister is the Head of Government, while the President is the Head of State and Commander in Chief. Mauritius has 23 Cabinet Minister.

Economy: The country's economy has made great strides since independence in 1968, and Mauritius is now an upper middle-income economy. Key challenges include managing the transition to a knowledge-based economy and adapting to the impacts of climate change. Mauritius is a multiparty parliamentary democracy. The economy continues its steady expansion, with real GDP growth estimated at 4.1% in 2018, up from 3.8% in 2017. Gross National Income per capita at market prices reached 385,822 rupees. Unemployment rate is estimated at about 6.9% while inflation stood at 3.2% in 2018. Growth was led mainly by construction, financial services, and information and communications technology.

During the past thirty years, the Mauritian economy has diversified from a sugarcane monocrop economy in the 1970's to one based on sugar, manufacturing (mainly textiles and garments) and tourism in the 1980's. Global business (offshore) and freeport activities have also been growing continuously since the mid-1990s.

Religion: According to the 2011 census conducted by Statistics Mauritius, 48.5% of the Mauritian population follows Hinduism mostly Biharis with Tamil, Telugu and Marathi minorities, followed by Christianity (32.7%), Islam (17.2%) and other religions (0.7%). 0.7% reported themselves as non-religious and 0.1% did not answer. Mauritius is the only country in Africa to have a Hindu plurality. 

Language:  The official language is English, but French is widely spoken. In the workplace Hindi is also widely used.

Culture: Indo-Mauritians, Creoles, Sino-Mauritians, Mauritians living in the UK and white South Africans are living in Mauritius. Mauritius society is composed of multicultural due to multi-ethnic people living in Mauritius.

Environment: Mauritius enjoys a mild tropical maritime climate throughout the year. The country has two seasons: a warm humid summer extending from November to April and a relatively cool dry winter from June to September. The month of October and May are commonly known as the transition months. Mean summer temperature is 24.7 degrees Celsius and mean winter temperature is 20.4 degrees Celsius. The temperature difference between the seasons is only 4.3 degrees Celsius.

Diplomatic Relations: Bangladesh and Mauritius share a common heritage in culture and politics. Diplomatic relations were established in 1972, soon after the achievement of Bangladesh independence. Both nations have rapidly growing trade ties and increasing investment and financial linkages. Bangladesh High Commission was established in Port Louis in 2012. The two countries are common members of the Indian Ocean Rim Association and the Commonwealth of Nations.

Economic Relations:  Main export partners are France 16.7%, US 12.5%, UK 12%, South Africa 9%, Madagascar 6.7%, Italy 6.6%, Spain 5.2%  and  the main export commodities are clothing and textiles, sugar, cut flowers, molasses, fish etc. on the other hand  main imports commodities are manufactured goods, capital equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals  and the imports partners are  India 17.9%, China 15.7%, France 11.1%, South Africa 9.7%.  The Mauritian currency is the Rupee (Rs).

Bilateral trade between Bangladesh and Mauritius is minimal. Mauritius Exports to Bangladesh was US$ 19.70 Million during 2018, according to the United Nations COMTRADE database on international trade. The main export-items were: Cotton Knitted or crocheted fabric, Mineral fuels, oils, distillation products, Soaps, lubricants, waxes, candles, Machinery, Wool, animal hair, horsehair yarn and fabric etc.

On the other hand, the value of exported items of Bangladesh to Mauritius was USD 5.33 during 2018-19 (July-June), according to Export Promotion Bureau. Main export items from Bangladesh are medicine, food, frozen fish etc.

Other remarkable Issues:

International Benchmarks Mauritius is recognized by international organizations for continuous improvement in its doing business regime. The country is today acclaimed as a leading investment destination.



Global Rank

Africa Rank


World Bank Doing Business 2014

20 out of 189 countries

1st out of 47 countries


Global Competitiveness Index 2013-2014

45 out of 148 countries



Corruption Perceptions Index 2013 (Transparency International)

52 out of 175 countries



International Property Rights Index 2013

73 of 130

8 of 23 countries


Mo Ibrahim Index of African Governance 2013

1st out of 52 countries


The A.T. Kearney Global Services Location Index, 2011

36 out of 50 countries

4th after Egypt, Tunisia and Ghana


2014 Index of Economic Freedom

8 out of 178

1st out of 46 in the SubSaharan African Region


Press Freedom Index 2014 (Reporters without Borders)

70 out of 180



Human Development Index 2013

80 out 187

3rd after Seychelles and Libya


Democracy Index 2012

Full Democracy



Economist Intelligence Unit

18 out of 167



Knowledge Economy Index 2012-World Bank

62 out of 145 countries



Global Enabling Trade Report 2014 – World Economic Forum

29 out of 138 countries



Environmental Performance Index 2014

56 out 178 countries